Jet grouting is otherwise called pressure grouting, an effective and versatile technique that can be used in a wide range of construction applications to provide stability and support to the soil or rock.

It  is a ground improvement technique that uses high-pressure jets of fluid to break up and mix the soil with a cementitious grout. 

The process involves the use of a high-pressure jet of grout that is injected into the ground through a drilling rod or pipe creating a solid mass that is capable of providing structural support.

What is Jet Grouting Process?

Jet grouting can improve the strength, stiffness, permeability, and durability of the soil, depending on the design and execution parameters. Jet grouting can be applied to a wide range of soil types, from soft clays to dense sands. 

It can also be used to treat contaminated soils by encapsulating or immobilizing the pollutants. Jet grouting is an effective method for enhancing the geotechnical properties of the soil for various engineering applications.

Jet grouting is commonly used in soil stabilization, foundation support, and tunneling applications.

The technique is particularly useful in situations where traditional construction methods are not feasible due to the presence of soft or unstable soil or rock.

It is also effective in locations where space is limited, as the equipment used for jet grouting can be easily maneuvered in tight spaces.

What are jet grouting materials?

The material used for the jet grout is an OPC in water with some binders which helps to form solid mass in the soil.

Why is jet grouting used for?

Jet grouting is used as the best ground improvement technique to improve the mechanical properties of soil, increase the bearing capacity, soil stability, and reduce liquefaction risks.

Jet grouting procedure

The steps in the jet grouting process includes

1. A drill rod with a jet nozzle at the tip is inserted into the ground to the desired depth.

2. A fluid (usually a cement grout) is pumped through the drill rod and ejected from the nozzle at a high velocity, creating a jet that erodes and mixes with the surrounding soil.

3. The drill rod is slowly rotated and withdrawn, forming a column of cemented soil around the jet nozzle.

4. The process is repeated at different locations and depths to create a network of overlapping columns that improve the strength and stiffness of the soil.

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                                             Jet grouting phases


What are the types of jet grouting

There are three main types of jet or pressure grouting techniques used base on the type of the projects:

Single fluid jet grouting

In this technique, a single fluid consisting of a cementitious grout mixture is injected into the ground using a high-pressure jet.

The grout mixes with the soil or rock to create a solid composite material that provides stability and support. Single fluid jet grouting is often used in projects where the soil or rock is relatively homogeneous and requires only moderate stabilization.

It is suitable for coarse-grained soils with low fines content, where the cement can easily penetrate the soil pores. The diameter of the columns produced by single fluid jet grouting is typically 0.6 to 1.2 m.

Double fluid jet grouting

In double fluid jet grouting, two fluids are used – a high-pressure fluid and a low-pressure fluid.  It is a combination of cement grout and air as the jetting fluids. The high-pressure fluid carries the grout mixture, while the low-pressure fluid provides the energy required to displace the soil or rock.

This technique is typically used for more challenging ground conditions, such as non-homogeneous soil or rock, or when the project requires higher strength grout.

It is suitable for fine-grained soils with moderate fine content, where the air can help to disperse the cement into the soil matrix. The diameter of the columns produced by double fluid jet grouting is typically 0.8 to 1.5 m.

Triple fluid jet grouting

Triple fluid jet grouting uses a combination of cement grout, air and water as the jetting fluids. The water jet surrounds the air-cement jet and acts as a stabiliser and a cutter.

It is suitable for fine-grained soils with high fines content, where the water can help to wash out the fines and create larger voids for the cement to fill. The diameter of the columns produced by triple fluid jet grouting is typically 1.0 to 2.0 m.


Applications of jet grouting in civil engineering constructions

Foundation stabilization

The foundation of buildings, bridges, retaining walls and other structures can be stabilized via jet grouting. At locations where the earth is poor or unstable and cannot support the weight of the structure, the approach is especially helpful.:

Ground improvement

Jet grouting helps to  reduce liquefaction potential and settlement of soils,  Improving bearing capacity ,shear strength and stability of the ground, making it more suitable for construction. This is often necessary in areas with soft or compressible soil.

Soil cutoff walls

Soil cutoff walls, which are barriers that stop water from permeating the soil, can be built using jet grouting. This is useful in areas with high groundwater levels or where water infiltration could cause stability issues.


 Helps to create a stable tunnel lining in soft or unstable soil conditions. This is particularly important in urban areas where tunneling can cause disruption to buildings and infrastructure above ground.

Seismic retrofitting:

Used to retrofit existing buildings and structures to make them more resistant to earthquakes. This is done by creating a stronger foundation or by creating soil columns that act as shock absorbers.

Permeation Grouting Vs Jet Grouting

Permeation Grouting and Jet Grouting are both soil stabilization techniques that involve the injection of a fluid into the ground. However, there are some key differences between the two methods.

  • Permeation grouting involves injecting a low-viscosity fluid into the ground to fill the void spaces between soil particles. Jet grouting, on the other hand, involves the injection of a high-pressure fluid into the ground to create a grout column or mass.
  • The injected fluid in permeation grouting  typically contains a chemical such as sodium silicate or acrylamide that reacts with the soil to form a solidified mass. While in jet grouting   fluid typically contains cement or other binders that react with the soil to create a more stable foundation.
  • The permeation grout has a low strength and is used primarily for sealing and waterproofing purposes. Jet grout is of high strength and used primarily for soil improvement and foundation stabilization.
  • In terms of their applications, permeation grouting is typically used for sealing and waterproofing purposes, such as sealing leaks in underground tunnels or creating cutoff walls to prevent water infiltration.
  • Jet grouting, on the other hand, is used for a wider range of applications, including foundation stabilization, ground improvement, soil cutoff walls, tunneling, and seismic retrofitting.

Overall, both permeation grouting and jet grouting are effective soil stabilization techniques, but they are used for different purposes and have different strengths and weaknesses. The choice of which technique to use depends on the specific soil conditions and the intended application.

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